This would mean that when you're training your musical ear, you don't want to learn and memorize prototypes. You don't want to train yourself to recognize new sounds only by comparing them to an ideal sample you have stuck in your head. It isn't a matter of mere efficiency; rather, it's the difference between learning the functional, meaningful, and desirable musical structure of major third versus the useless, unimportant, and isolated non-musical group of "sounds which resemble this other one I can remember."
I remember reading a short bit about ear training in a book while in our main city library many years ago about the functionality of intervals and chords etc. Sorry I can't remember the author or title. It was saying that conventional ear training takes uterly the wrong approach in singling out intervals by learning to compare them against other intervals. Instead, it talked about the musical effect(perhaps emotional) of say going down a perfect fifth at a particular junction in the music.
I myself spent alot of time doing the David Burge relative pitch course which taught in this way. While doing the exercises I got very good at naming intervals and singing them and eventually at naming chords too. However the skill was less than what he promoted it as and the effort involved was mamoth. I can hear certain sounds in live music but the intervals and chords go by so fast that the RP his course gave me isn;t usually up to the task of hearing all that is going on. It leads me to wonder also about interval loader and the way it also teaches intervals in isolation from their function. This is one of the reasons why I don't play it any more.
Perhaps a better game would be to isolate the funtion of an interval and have the player identify it in a short segment of melody or a chord progression. This is a more real-life situation. What I want ot develop as far as ear training goes is to be able to hear a chord progression and say oh that's a I, vi, ii, V7, I progression. Or those guys are singing in 3rds or 5ths etc. WIth AP I could also tell the key. Not much of what I have learnt so far in EAR training of any system has got me even close to what I imagine is posibble to hear. I'm sure my ear has improved over the years and that I have normal hearing. So maybe the systems of traning are at fault.